Collaborative Activities During 2008-2012
1. A PhD student (Mr Isarawut) from Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand was on research attachment from March to May 2009 at University Malaya. He was supervised by Prof C S Wong to work on "plasma treatment of gelatin surface for biomedical application" under the spirit of AAAPT as collaboration between AAAPT network institutes. Mr Isarawut was supported by Chulalongkorn University and later he successfully completed his PhD programme.
2. A PhD student, Mr Ijaz Ahmed Khan, from Government College, Lahore visited Plasma Radiation Source Lab of NIE/NTU at Singapore on 6 month research attachment from Aug 2008 to Jan 2009 to work on “Nitrogen ion irradiation of Zr and thin film deposition using plasma focus”. During this attachment was under the collaborative supervision of Dr Rajdeep Singh Rawat NTU/Singapore and Dr Riaz Ahmed GC/Lahore. He later successfully completed his PhD on UNU-ICTP Plasma Focus Device developed under AAAPT network activity. The collaboration resulted in five research papers in international journals [1-5]. He was supported by Higher Education Commission of Pakistan, and Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
3. Another PhD student, Mr Eslam Gharshebani, from University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran visited Plasma Radiation Source Lab of NIE/NTU at Singapore on 6 month research attachment from Feb 2000 to July 2009 to work on “Hard coatings using plasma focus”. During this attachment was under the collaborative supervision of Dr Rajdeep Singh Rawat NTU/Singapore and Prof Samad Sobhanian Univ. Tabriz/Tabrz. He later successfully completed his PhD. The collaboration resulted in two research papers in international journals [6-7]. He was supported by Ministry of Science, Iran and Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
4. INTI plasma focus which was decommissioned from NTU, by Dr Paul Lee, and given to Dr Saw at INTI, Malaysia. One week refresher activity with Dr Saw was done at NIE in the spirit of AAAPT activities to put the decommissioned device back in working condition. Dr Saw was supported by INTI International University.
5. Dr Mohammed Akel from Syria visited Physics Department University of Malaya, in the spirit of AAAPT network activity, from 5 July 2009 for one month to learn Diode X-ray Spectroscopy from the research group of Prof C. S. Wong. Dr Akel successfully completed the activity at UM and took back a five channel Diode X-ray Spectrometer.
6. Prof Lee Sing and Prof Saw of INTI International University and IPFS organized two Internet-based Workshops as AAAPT affiliated activity for four weeks from 14 April to 19 May 2008 and from July to end August 2009. These two courses were attended by 30 participants from countries including Malaysia, Russia, Serbia, Syria, Turkey, Egypt, Iran, Poland, Chile, Singapore, Thailand and India. Since that start another five hands-on courses have been run in Ankara and Turunc Turkey; at KSU, USA and at the ICTP Trieste Italy. To date more than 100 participants from 23 countries have completed these courses. A DIY course is also available from the IPFS website www.plasmafocus.net. The impact of these courses is significant and has resulted in collaborative interaction by IPFS and INTI IU with groups in Turkey, Syria, Chile, Malaysia, Singapore and Iran; resulting in 25 joint publications with the NTU/NIE group, the KSU Group, the group from AEC Syria and UTM [8-33]. Several research papers have also been stimulated by the use of the code by researchers from Iran.
7. The UNU-ICTP plasma focus, which was donated by NTU, Singapore to INTI International University, has now been successfully installed and operated as INTI plasma focus by Dr Saw and Prof Lee Sing.
8. A two week collaborative activity was held at INTI International University, Nilai from 15 August to 27 August 2010 during which Dr Rajdeep Singh Rawat and Dr Alireza Talebitaher (both from NTU, Singapore) trained INTI researchers on designing and use of diode x-ray spectrometer on INTI focus. The experiments on X-ray emissions from pure Neon and Krypton seeded Neon were conducted at INTI. The activity was supported by INTI International University and Nanyang Technological University.
9. Dr Paul Lee, NTU visited INTI International University and conducted joint experiments on magnetic probe measurements on Plasma focus device during July 2011.
10. The visit by Dr Paul Lee to INTI International University was followed by a meeting with participants from Pakistan (Prof M. Zakaullah), Iran (Dr Tania Davari, Dr Behbani), Singapore (Dr Paul), Malaysia (Prof Lee Sing, Prof Jalil Ali and Prof S. H. Saw and their group members) and many others. The activity was supported by INTI International University, ICTP, Atomic Energy of Malaysia, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia etc.
11. As result of mutual collaborative experiments and discussion between the INTI International University / Nilai / Malaysia, IPFS / Melbourne / Australia and NIE / NTU / Singapore in the spirit of AAAPT network, several joint research papers have been written [8-14].
12. A PhD student, Mr Zeshan Umer, from Government College, Lahore visited Plasma Radiation Source Lab of NIE/NTU at Singapore on 6 month research attachment from Oct 2011 to April 2012 to work on “Hard Carbide coatings using plasma focus”. During this attachment was under the collaborative supervision of Dr Rajdeep Singh Rawat NTU/Singapore and Dr Riaz Ahmed GC/Lahore. Two research papers have been submitted to international journals which are currently under review. He was supported by Higher Education Commission of Pakistan, and Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
Publications out of AAAPT Network Groups Collaborations:
 I.A. Khan, R.S. Rawat, R. Verma, G. Macharaga, and R. Ahmad, Role of charge particles irradiation on the deposition of AlN films using plasma focus device, Journal of Crystal Growth 317(1), 98-103 (2011).
 I.A. Khan, S. Jabbar, T. Hussain,
M. Hassan, R. Ahmad, M. Zakaullah, and
 I.A. Khan, M. Hassan, T. Hussain, R. Ahmad, M. Zakaullah and R.S. Rawat, Synthesis of nano-crystalline zirconium aluminium oxynitride (ZrAlON) composite films by dense plasma focus device, Applied Surface Science 255(12) 6132-6140 (2009).
 I.A. Khan, M. Hassan, R. Ahmad, G. Murtaza, M. Zakaullah, R.S. Rawat and P. Lee, Synthesis of zirconium oxynitride (ZrON) nanocomposite films on zirconium substrate by dense plasma focus, International Journal of Modern Physics B 22 (23), 3941-3955 (2008).
 I. A. Khan, M. Hassan, R. Ahmad, A. Qayyum, G. Murtaza, M. Zakaullah and R.S. Rawat, Nitridation of zirconium using ion beam delivered by plasma focus discharges, Thin Solid Films 516 (23), 8255-8263 (2008).
 E. Gharshebani, R. S. Rawat, S. Sobhanian, R. Verma, S. Karamat, and Z.Y. Pan, Synthesis of nanostructured multiphase Ti(C,N)/a-C films by a plasma focus device, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 268, 2777-84 (2010).
 E. Gharshebani, R. S. Rawat, R. Verma, S. Karamat, and S. Sobhanian, Low energy repetitive miniature plasma focus device as high deposition rate facility for synthesis of DLC thin films, Applied Surface Science 256(16), 4977-83 (2010).
 S. Lee, S. H. Saw, P. Lee, R. S. Rawat, and K. Devi, Magnetic Reynolds Number and Neon Current Sheet structure in the axial phase of a plasma focus, Journal of Fusion Energy, In Press (2012). DOI: 10.1007/s10894-012-9521-9
 S. Lee, S. H. Saw, R. S. Rawat, P. Lee, A. Talebitaher, A. E. Abdou, P. L. Chong, F. Roy, A. Singh, D. Wong and K. Devi, Correlation of Measured soft x-ray pulses with modeled dynamics of the plasma focus, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 39(11), 3196-3202 (2012). DOI: 10.1109/TPS.2011.2166812
 S. Lee, S.H. Saw, R.S. Rawat, P. Lee, R. Verma, A. Talebitaher, S.M. Hassan, A.E. Abdou, M. Ismail, A. Mohamed, H. Torreblanca, S. Al Hawat, M. Akel, P.L. Chong, F. Roy, A. Singh, D. Wong, K. Devi, Measurement and Processing of Fast Pulsed Discharge Current in Plasma Focus Machines, Journal of Fusion Energy 31, 198-204 (2012). DOI: 10.1007/s10894-011-9456-6
 S. Lee, S.H. Saw, P. Lee and R.S. Rawat, Numerical experiments on plasma focus neon soft x-ray scaling, Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion 51, 105013 (2009).
 S. H. Saw, P. Lee, R. S. Rawat and S. Lee, Optimizing UNU/ICTP PFF Plasma Focus for Neon Soft X-ray Operation, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 37 (7), 1276-1282 (2009).
 S. Lee, P. Lee, S. H. Saw and R. S. Rawat, Numerical Experiments on Plasma Focus Pinch Current Limitation, Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion 50 (6), 065012 (2008).
 S. Lee, S. H. Saw, P. C. K. Lee, R. S. Rawat and H. Schmidt, Computing Plasma Focus Pinch Current from Total Current Measurement, Applied Physics Letters 92 (11), 111501 (2008).
 S.Lee, S.H.Saw, L..Soto, S V Springham, S P Moo Numerical Experiments on Plasma Focus Neutron Yield versus Pressure, Plasma Phys and Control. Fusion, 51 075006 (11pp) (2009). Available at http://stacks.iop.org/PPCF/51/1050056
 S. H. Saw, M. Akel, P. C. K. Lee, S. T. Ong, S. N. Mohamad, F. D. Ismail, N. D. Nawi, K. Devi, R. M. Sabri, A. H. Baijan, J. Ali and S. Lee, Magnetic Probe Measurements in INTI Plasma Focus to Determine Dependence of Axial Speed with Pressure in Neon, J Fusion Energ 31:411–417 (2012).
 M. Akel, Sh. Al-Hawat, S. Lee. Numerical Experiments on Soft X-ray Emission Optimization of Nitrogen Plasma in 3 kJ Plasma Focus SY-1 Using Modified Lee Model J Fusion Energy (2009) 28: 355-363 DOI 10.1007/s10894-009-9203-4
 M. Akel, Sh. Al-Hawat, S. Lee, Pinch Current & Soft X-ray Yield Limitation by Numerical Experiments on Nitrogen Plasma Focus , J Fusion Energy (2010) 29: 94-99.
 M. Akel, Sh. Al- Hawat, S. H. Saw, S Lee, Numerical Experiments on Oxygen Soft X-Ray Emissions from Low Energy Plasma Focus Using Lee Model, J Fusion Energy (2010) 29: 223;231.
 M Akel, Sh Al-Hawat, S Lee, Neon Soft X-ray Yield Optimization from PFSy-1 Plasma Focus Device , J Fusion Energy Volume 30, Number 1, 39-47 (2011).
 S Lee, S H Saw, A E Abdou and H Torreblanca, Characterising Plasma Focus Devices– Role of Static Inductance– Instability Phase Fitted by Anomalous Resistance, J Fusion Energy Volume 30, Issue 4 (2011) Page 277-282 DOI 10.1007/s10894-010-9372-1
 Sh Al-Hawat, M. Akel, S. Lee, Numerical Experiments on Neon Soft X-Ray Optimization of AECS-PF2 Plasma Focus Device, J Fusion Energy 30, 494-502 (2011).
 Sh Al-Hawat, M. Akel , S. Lee, S. H. Saw, Model parameters vs gas pressure in two different plasma focus devices operated in Argon and Neon, J Fusion Energy (2012) 31:13–20. DOI 10.1007/s10894-011-9414-3-3
 M. Akel and S. Lee, Dependence of Plasma Focus Argon Soft X-Ray Yield on Storage Energy, Total and Pinch Currents, J Fusion Energy (2012) 31:143-150.
 M. Akel and S. Lee, Practical Optimization of AECS PF-2 Plasma Focus Device for Argon Soft X-ray Operation, J Fusion Energy (2012) 31:122-129.
 M. Akel and S. Lee, Scaling Laws of Nitrogen Soft X-Ray yields from 1 – 200 kJ Plasma Focus, J Fusion Energy DOI 10.1007/s10894-012-9537-1 Published Online 30 March 2012.
 M Akel and S. Lee, Radiative Collapse in Plasma Focus Operated with Heavy Noble Gases, J Fusion Energy DOI 10.1007/s10894-012-9535-3 Published Online 31 March 2012.
 M Akel and S Lee, Soft X-Ray Emission in the Water Window Region with Nitrogen Filling in a Low Energy Plasma Focus, J Fusion Energ DOI 10.1007/s10894-012-9536-2 Published Online 03 April 2012
 S. Javadi, M. Habibi, M. Ghoranneviss, S. Lee, S.H. Saw and R A Behbahani, Investigation of Structural Properties of Chromium Thin Films Prepared by aPlasma Focus Device. Physica Scripta 86 (2012) 025801 (6pp)
 A E. Abdou, M I. Ismail, Amgad E. Mohamed, S. Lee, S H Saw, R Verma Preliminary Results of Kansas State University Dense Plasma Focus, IEEE Trans on Plasma Sci, Vol: PP , Issue: 99 DOI: 10.1109/TPS.2012.2209682; Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 – 4, IEEE EARLY ACCESS ARTICLES
 Amgad E. Mohamed, Ali E. Abdou, Mohamed I. Ismail, S. Lee, and S.H. Saw, Current Sheet Axial Dynamics of 2.5 KJ KSU-DPF under High Pressure Regime, IEEE Trans on Plasma Sci Vol: PP , Issue: 99 DOI: 10.1109/TPS.2012.2210738 IEEE EARLY ACCESS ARTICLES, Date of Publication : 16 August 2012
 S Lee, S H Saw and Jalil Ali, Numerical experiments on radiative cooling and collapse in plasma focus operated in krypton J Fusion Energ DOI 10.1007/s10894-012-9522-8 First online 26 Feb 2012
 M Akel, S Lee, S H Saw, Numerical Experiments in Plasma Focus Operated in Various Gases, Accepted for publication by IEEE Trans Plasma Science (2012)
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