Activities During 1988-2004

The period from 1988 to 2004 was one the most active period of AAAPT network activities, collaborations, exchanges, publications etc under the leadership of Prof Lee Sing, the Founding President of AAAPT. The details some of major activities during this period can be found in the monograph mentioned in the previous page. This page gives the highlights of the some of major activities during this period.

1.      Second (UNU) ICTP Training Programme in Plasma and Laser Technology, Kuala Lumpur (June-October 1988): Participants: A G Warmate (Nigeria), Prof Y S Shishodia (India), Dr MHV Prabhakar (India), Chaivitya Silawatshananai (Thailand), Jalil Ali (Malaysia), Dr M A Eissa and Dr A H Saudy (Egypt); Programme: Research on UNU ICTP PFF, field-biased electromagnetic shock tube and glow discharge; development of a new sequenced nitrogen laser system including numerical experiments and actual construction and demonstration of the system resulting in publications including the following:  S. Lee, K.H. Kwek, Jalil Ali, M.V.H.V. Prabhakar, Y.S. Shishodia and A.G. Warmate.  Sequenced Nitrogen Lasers.  J. Appl. Phys., USA (1989), 65: 4133-4137. Follow-up equipment: 3 sets of UNU ICTP PFF, 5 sets nitrogen lasers, parts for laser shadowgraphy and glow discharge- Funded by ICTP, TWAS, UNESCO, University of Malaya- Directed by S Lee

2.      University of Malaya accredited as ICTP Affiliated Centre ICAC-UM, 31 October 1989- signing of Memorandum of Agreement at ICTP, Trieste, Italy by ICTP Director Abdus Salam, UM VC Hussein Alatas and UM Head Physics Lee Sing; status accorded to UM due to UM’s role in the collaborative work on plasma physics exemplified by its leadership of the AAAPT.


3.      Beijing College on Plasma Physics: Diagnostics; Beijing (30 October- 9 November 1989)-Funded by UNESCO, ICTP, Institute of Physics, CAS Beijing- 39 participants from 9 countries- featuring lectures and hands-on experiments and visits to Institute of physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing University, Tsinghua University, Beijing Institute of Printing and the Great Wall of China- Directed by Tsai Shi Tung


4.      Regional College on Plasma Applications, Songkla, Thailand (7-13 January 1990)- 5 invited lecturers and 55 participants from 15 countries; content: Basic plasma physics and applications to industry- funded mainly by UNESCO, ICTP, Uppsala University ISP and Australian ISSS and Songkla University- directed by Chaivitya Silawatshananai.

5.      Third ICTP-UM Training Programme in Plasma and Pulse Technology, Kuala Lumpur (Dec 1989-June 1990)- Participants: Jalil Ali (Malaysia), M A Alabraba (Nigeria), Mohamad Nisar (Pakistan), Rajdeep Singh Rawat (India), A V Gholap (Zimbabwe), Mario Favre Domiguez (Chile), Feng Xian-Ping (China) and A G Warmate (Nigeria)- Designed simple nitrogen laser shadowgraphy system, carried out research on the UNU ICTP PFF, including electron beam studies (XP Feng) and x-ray studies (M Favre-Dominguez). Equipment follow-up: parts for Laser shadowgraphic systems for Port Harcourt, Islamabad, Delhi and Zimbabwe- 3 research papers written including: S. Lee, M.A. Alabraba, A.V. Gholap, S. Kumar, K.H. Kwek, M.  Nisar, R.S. Rawat, J. Singh.  Effect of Targets on Plasma Focus Dynamics.  IEEE Trans Plasma Science, USA (1990), 18: 1028-1032- Funded by ICTP, UNESCO, TWAS, ICAC-UM and Universiti Malaya- Directed by S Lee


6.      Fourth Tropical College on Applied Physics, Kuala Lumpur (28 May-16 June 1990)- sponsored by ICAC-UM, University of Malaya, UNESCO, ISESCO, British Council, ISSS Australia, DFG  Germany, IPS Sweden, COSTED, World Scientific Publishing, Singapore, in association with AAAPT

7.      Third Summer School on Plasma Physics, Tsingdao, China (Aug 1990)- Participants: 110 participants from 7 countries- wide ranging topics covering every aspect of plasma physics: theory, diagnostics and experimental- sponsored by APSC, CSP, IP, CAS.

8.      Basic Course on Plasma Physics Theory, Islamabad, Pakistan (22 Sept-24 Dec 1990) - Participants- Feng Xian-Ping (China), M N Bhuiyun (Bengladesh), Suryadi (Indonesia) and M A Khan Yousaf Zai, Noor Abbas Din Khattak, M H Nasim, S R Khan, Tanveer and Ziaullah (Pakistan) and  postgrad students of Q-i-A Plasma Group and visited by AAAPT Council-  Content: Basic concepts of plasma, kinetic theory, Notzmann equation, Fokker Planck Equation, controlled fusion magnetic and inertial confinement and special topics- funded by AAAPT, ICAC-QIA, Quaid-i-Azam University and Dr A Q Khan Research Laboratory- Directed by G Murtaza with 9 lecturers.

9.      Nitrogen Laser Training Programme, Kuala Lumpur (15 Oct-10 Nov 1990)- Participants: Homnath Paudyal (Nepal), Zarin Ahmad (Bengladesh), Shahid Mahmud (Pakistan), Ampon Wongjamran (Thailand) and Widdi Usada (Indonesia). Content: Lectures and hands-on activities on pulse technology, physics and technology of gas and dye lasers. During the hands-on sessions, each participant built a TEA nitrogen laser (1 ns pulse) including the HV power supply and control electronics. Each participant then took the working laser system back to their home institutions. Sponsored by ICAC-UM, University of Malaya, AAAPT, Malaysia Institute of Physics and ICTP- Directed by S Lee and K H Kwek.

10.   Installation of the 3.3 kJ ICTP-UM PFF at the ICTP Laser Laboratory as a joint project of ICTP OEA, ICAC-UM and the AAAPT. (October 1990)- Installation was carried out by Jasbir Singh of UM under direction of S Lee.

11.    Representing AAAPT, S Lee attended an International Workshop and Group Meeting for a proposal to set up the International Centre for Dense Magnetised Plasmas- Dec 1990 Zvenigorod (Moscow), Russia.


12.   Training attachment for George Ishiekwene of Liberia, December 1990 to January 1991, Kuala Lumpur on Nitrogen Laser and shadowgraphy of spark discharges- sponsored by ICAC-UM in association with AAAPT.


13.   Libyan Training Programme on Plasma Experiments, January to March 1991, Kuala Lumpur; Participants: Abdelmajid A Elfetouri, Ali Mohamed Shengher, Ehsan Shumaki and Najib Ahmed Hassan of Tajura Nuclear Research Centre, Tripoli Libya- organised by ICAC-UM in association with AAAPT; self-funded; directed by S Lee; publication: S Lee S H Saw, A A Elfetouri, A M Shengher, E O Shumaki and N A Hassan ‘Magnetic Reynold Number and Current Sheet Structure J Fiz Mal 12 (1991) 25

14.   Fifth Training Programme on Plasma Lab Techniques, Beijing, China (15 April- 4 May 1991) - Participants: 5 participants from AAAPT member institutes- training in plasma laboratory techniques- sponsored by APSC, Institute of Physics, CAS and AAAPT- Directed by Li Yin-an

15.   Research sessions using the ICTP-UM PFF at the ICTP 1991 Spring College on Plasma Physics (May-June 1991)- Ten afternoon sessions in Room A Terrace Level with 15 participants, totalling 30 hours, 400 shots fired 12-14 kV, 0.5 mbar Ar, to collect research data including current and voltage, axial and radial magnetic fields, spectroscopic measurements, plasma soft x-ray (SXR) imaging and 5-channel SXR spectroscopy yielding a pinch temperature of 1.6 keV; and correlation of measured plasma dynamics and pinch properties with numerical experiments. Directed by S Lee as a Director of the 1991 Spring Colleg on PP. Manual published:  S.Lee. Experiments with the ICTP-UM 3.3 kJ Plasma Fusion Facilities. International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy (1991), ICTP.H4-SMR554/4. 1-62 (4 appendices).


16.   Research on the ICTP-UM PFF (June-July 1991) by M A Alabraba and A G Warmate (Nigeria) and G Gratton (Argentina) on non-linear behaviour of plasma focus SXR emissions leading to a research paper: J.Gratton, M A Alabraba, A G Warmate and G Giudice. Deterministic Dynamics of Plasma Focus Discharges, ICTP Preprint IC/92/60 (1992)

17.   Report of detection of fusion neutrons at Yogyakarta Nuclear Research Centre (PPNY)–End July 1991- In September 1986, 5 months after the UNU Training Programme,  Suryadi and Widdi Usada had reported assembly of the UNU ICTP PFF at PPNY and full testing with strong focus at 15kV 1 mbar. After further training on laser shadowgraphy at UM (Oct to Dec 1990) laser shadowgraphy was carried out at PPNY. This was followed by detection of fusion neutrons, operating the PF with strong focus in deuterium at 2-3 mbar at end July 1991 marking the first plasma fusion event in Indonesia.

18.   Representing the AAAPT and Malaysia at the 4th Meeting of the International Working Group IWG of the proposed International Centre for Dense Magnetized Plasmas ICDMP 24-28 March 1992 at San Diego Maxwells Laboratories and at Phillips Air Force Base Albuquerque; S Lee, together with Ken Ware was given the task of drafting the section of the proposal: Education, Technology and Scientific Exchange of the ICDMP; based primarily on the experience of the AAAPT.

19.   Installation of a new UNU ICTP PFF at NTU/NIE Singapore in newly established Plasma Radiation Laboratory, April 1991- machine commissioned with the assistance of AAAPT


20.   Sixth ICTP-UM Training Programme on Plasma Focus and Pulsed X-ray Technology, Kuala Lumpur (1 Mar- 15 April 1992); Participants: Prof Min Han (China), Dr C Silawatshananai (Thailand), Jiang Zhiming (China), Smruti R Mohanty (India); Content: Use of the 5-Channel filtered XR spectrometer for measurement of XR from the UNU ICTP PFF; Follow-up equipment: 3 units of 5-channel filtered XR spectrometer (DXS) were given to the participants from Thailand and India and to Prof Min Han; sponsored by ICAC-UM, AAAPT, ICTP, IFM- Directed by C S Wong

21.   A series of AAAPT Council Meetings and scientific visits to various major institutions in Egypt (May 1992); these form a series of continuing Council Meetings which previously had been held in conjunction with associated meetings in Kuala Lumpur, Beijing, Songkla, ICTP Trieste, Delhi, Islamabad

22.   5th APP Conference (5APPC) post-conference Workshop on Plasma Sources and Applications, Kuala Lumpur (17-18 Aug 1992)- 20 participants from 9 countries exchange research and collaborative experience – sponsored by ICAC-UM, AAAPT and University of Malaya.


23.   International Symposium on Laser-Plasma Interactions, Shanghai (9-12 Nov 1992)- Well attended by local and foreign participants- Laser fusion, x-ray lasers, radiation and hydrodynamics of laser plasmas, target design, diagnostics, plasma accelerators, magnetic confined and ion beam fusion, astrophysical plasmas, anomalous nuclear phenomena in glow discharge plasmasco-sponsored by SIOFM, ICTP, AAAPT, Chinese Optical Soc, Chinese Phys Soc, and APSC.

24.   Sixth ICDMP Meeting of Working Group, Beijing (Oct 1992)- in association with AAAPT

25.   Regional Attachment Centre, University of Delhi: Dr A M Basu Physics Department and Dr C K Sarkar from Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering Jadavpur University attended a training course (November 1991-January 1992) on Plasma Focus operation, diagnostics and computation including nitrogen laser shadowgraphy. Dr Akash Sahu from Stewart Science College, Grissa attended another course in June 1992. Dr Rita Paikaray, Heremba Bailung, Dr Bipul Kumar Sailia, Dr. Manisha Gupta, Dr Nazhat Fatima and Dr Joyant Chutia were network grantees. As of July 1995, 10 scientists from the region had been trained in 1-month research programmes and several research papers were published associated with these attachment programmes; Dr Rachana Garg (University of Lucknow, India) and Dr Smruti R Mohanty (Gujarat, India) attached under this scheme in 1999 for training on plasma focus- sponsored by AAAPT and University of Delhi; coordinated by Prof M P Srivastava

26.   Scientific Exchange Programmes: The Association of Plasma Studies of China has 18 Institutional members and conducted a scientific exchange programme in association with the AAAPT. Ten scientists/researchers had taken part in the programme up to July 1992. Activities include lectures and research on: Carbon fibre surface treatment by microwave plasma at Yunnan University, Particle collision on radiation at Institute of Physics IP and Shanghai Fudan University, Wave instability near reflection layer in non-uniform plasmas at IP and Shanghai institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics SIOFM, Frequency up-conversion and pulse amplification induced by reflection from ionizing fronts at SIOFM and Xian University of Electronic Science and Technology XUEST [published in Supp Chinese Phys Lett 10 (1993) 233], Propagation of em radiation against oncoming ionization fronts at SIOF [published in J Phys D Appl Phys 26 (1993) 1141]; Advanced statistical physics at IP and Shanghai Fudan [published book]; Controlled Nuclear Fusion at IP [published book]; Cyclotron stimulated radiation instability at Shanghai Fudan and Fuzhou University; Dynamic behaviour of plasma fluid under action of superstrong laser at SIOFM and Southwestern University- series sponsored by AAAPT and IP CAS, coordinated by Tsai Shih Tung up to May 1995. Network grantees include also: Hosted by Yunnan University: Prof Sun Mujin, Prof Feng Jing; Hosted by IP CAS, Beijing: Prof Lu Quan-Kang), Dr Ma Jinsue, Dr Shen Bai Fei, Prof Dan Youxian; Hosted by University of Electronics Sc & Tech: Dr Yu Wei, Prof Li Yin-an; Hosted by Fuzhou University:  Prof Lu Quankang;  Hosted by Nanjing Purple Mountain Observatory: Prof Tsai Shih Tung, Prof Chen Yanping

27.   Regional Attachment Centres, Quaid-i-Azam University:  Dr Feng Xianping (SIOFM China), M A Alabraba (Nigeria), A G Warmate (Nigeria), F E Opara (Nigeria), K D Alagoa (Nigeria),  Mr Abdul Rahim Omar (Malaysia) Mr Manny Mathuthu (Zimbabwe) – 1 month research training in the period 1990-1995. Mr Manny Mathuthu’s attachment was part of a sandwich PhD programme which he carried out in the framework of a research programme with several universities and his home university in Zimbabwe. Q-i-A followed up the visit of Abdul Rahim Omar by sending Dr M Zakaullah to UTM Malaysia to help with diagnostics of the UTM plasma focus.- sponsored by AAAPT and Q-i-A University, coordinated by Prof G Murtaza

28.   Attachment at Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo: This programme was carried out with the participation of several scientists from several countries in the region including Dr Walid Sahyouni (Syria) who received training June-December 1996).- sponsored by AAAPT and the Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Department of the AEA Egypt- coordinated by Prof T El Khalafawy

29.   Fourth AAAPT College on Plasma Technology- Training on Plasma Diagnostics, Cairo (24 April- 5 May 1993): Training on the plasma focus, glow discharge and theta-z pinch particularly on low-cost diagnostics- sponsored by the Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Department of the Atomic Energy Authority of Egypt.

30.   International Conference on Plasma Physics, Changsha, China (4-14 May 1993); held together with Fourth APSC Summer School on Plasma Physics of Nonlinear Phenomena and the First APSC Workshop on Plasma Science and Technology. There were 17 invited papers and 74 contributed papers published as Supplement to Chinese Phys Letts. Sponsored by APSC, CPS, Changsha Institute of Technology, National Natural Science Foundation and AAAPT, IP CAS and Shanghai Fudan University.

31.   One-day Workshop on Elements of Plasma Physics and Applications, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 3 July 1993; 57 participants were given gerneral introduction to plasma physics and applications; sponsored by ICAC-UM, Plasma Physics and Pulse Technology Groups of University of Malaya, AAAPT and Hisco (M) Sdn Bhd. Directed by C S Wong

32.   Joint PSU-UM Plasma Physics Seminar, Prince of Songkla University, Hatyai, Thailand, 14-17 March 1994- Review and research papers were presented to promote further cooperation between the two groups; arising from the meetings Mr Y Tirawanichakul of PSU enrolled for PhD course on Physics and Applications of Gas Discharges- sponsored by PSU and ICAC-UM, coordinated by C Silawatshananai and S P Moo


33.   AAAPT- African Network within AAAPT, July 1994: to increase emphasis on collaboration with African scientists to assist the upgrading of scientists from Liberia, Nigeria and Zimbabwe in the area of plasma physics. First attachment of Manny Mathuthu from Zimbabwe to Quaid-i-Azam University under AAAPT sponsorship.

34.   Regional Course on Plasma Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan 12-30 November 1994- 13 foreign from 5 countries and 50 local participants; Dr A Q Khan inaugurated the course proposing a National Centre of Plasma Physics to promote Thermonuclear Fusion Technology; Among othere speakers, lecture courses were given by Dr Bell of Imperial College, Prof Hirose of Canada  and Prof Murtaza on laser plasmas, Tokamak physics and plasma physics and applications. Sponsored by Management and Training Services Division of the Commonwealth Secretariat, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, Dr A Q Khan Research Labortory, Pakistan Science Foundation, Q-i-A University in association with AAAPT.

35.   ICTP-UM Training Programme on the Technology and Applications of the Plasma Focus, Kuala Lumpur 13 March-23 April 1995- The programme consisted of elementary and advanced work with participation of Pius Adjardo (Liberia), Suryadi (Indonesia), Chaivitya Silawatshananai and Yuthana (Thailand), C Deminitscu-Zoita (Romania), Peter Choi (UK), Prof V A Gribkov (Russia) and staff of the Plasma Research Lab and Pulse Technology and Instrumentation Lab of University of Malaya- sponsored by ICAC-UM, University of Malaya and AAAPT under AAAPT-African Network; directed by C S Wong.

36.   10th IWG of ICDMP; Kuala Lumpur 24-26 April 1995 was co-sponsored by ICAC-UM and AAAPT.


37.   International Conference on  Plasma Science & Technology Chengdu June 1994


38.   Inaugural Meeting of the AAAPT Research and Training Center, Institute of Physics, Beijing China, 24 May 1995- attended by Prof Galieno Denardo (Head, OEA, ICTP), Prof Zou Qin-Xin (Deputy Head, Basic Scientific Research Bureau CAS), Prof Nie Yu-xin (Vice Director Institute of Physics CAS), Mr Cheng Er-Jin (Head, International Cooperatio Bureau CAS) and Prof Wang Nai-ye (Vice Head, Academy of Atomic Energy, China) and the Council of AAAPT. The AAAPT R & T Centre, Beijing was given a building for its training and research activities to be directed by Prof Tsai Shih Tung with Associate Director (Executive) Prof Li Yin-an and Assoc Director (representing AAAPT) Prof Lee Sing; Advisors: Prof Yang Guo-zhen (Director IP CAS) and Prof G Denardo (OEA ICTP)


39.   Sandwich PhD programme at AAAPT Research and Training Center, Beijing China. A programme which provided combined resources with parts of PhD programme done at home institution and at the AAAPT R & T Center; with financial help obtained from the CAS-TWAS South-South Fellowship, IP CAS and AAAPT and ICTP. Areas of research were offered in Theta Pinch and RF plasma sources, Coaxial Gun and plasma source ion implantation, Tokamak and steady state plasma devices and in theoretical research involving plasma theory, fusion, space, dusty plasmas and in plasma-aided materials processing. Arum K Sarma- Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, India- 3 months attachment 18 Sept to 15 Dec 1996, studied the driven sheath of ECR plasma- a set of Faraday Cup energy analyser manufactured by IP (cost: USD2.6K) was given to his home institute at end of attachment. Manny Mathuthu, Physics Department of University of Zimbabwe spent 3 months (May to August 1997) on a research attachment to Tsinghua University as part of his PhD sandwich programme of which a total of 3 visits were made to AAAPT Centres (the other 2 being to AEC Cairo and Q-i-A Islamabad). During this visit he studied x-ray production from the pseudo-spark, gas-puff Z-pinch and the plasma focus, writing parts of his PhD thesis (awarded 1999 by University of Zimbabwe) and manuscripts for research journals. Pejman Khorshid, Plasma Physics Research Center, Iran, attachments on tokamak studies in 1999 and 2000 totalling 6 months.

40.   Development and transfer of RF plasma device to Jiangxi Normal University to start the teaching of experimental plasma physics- 1995 to 1996. In connection with this transfer, two research workers from Jiangxi Normal University were given hands-on training at the R & T Center.

41.   International Workshop on Thin Films and Plasma Applications in Thin Film Technology, July-Aug 1997, National University of Science and Technology, Bulawayo,
Zimbabwe- orgainised by Prof A V Gholap, sponsored by AAAPT.

42.   Twelve Years of UNU/ICTP PFF- A Review presented 30 October 1998 in Kuala Lumpur at a Satellite Meeting of the International Meeting on Frontiers of Physics; Published as Proceedings by ICTP as IC/98/231 (Dec 1998) Ed: S Lee, S P Moo, C S Wong and A C Chew.  Extracted: “A network of 12 UNU/ICTP PFF’s is actively operated in 10 institutions in 8 countries. The research has produced a total of 16 PhD’s, 31 Masters, some 82 papers in refereed research journals and 83 conference papers. The research has contributed significantly to an understanding of pulsed dense plasmas. It has developed innovative concepts of enhancement of radiation yield and a wide range of applications. The research continues to grow.”


43.   Attachments for research and training at UM Centre: (a). Wahid Sahyouni (Al Baath University, Syria), Prof Sharif Al-Hawat (AEC Syria) and Prof A Blagoev (Sofia University, Bulgaria) May-June 1999 on the plasma focus; (b). researchers from PPNY, Yogyakarta, Indonesia; attachment to work on Plasma Ozoniser, equipment transferred at end of attachment, 2000; (c). Prof C Silawatshananai, research attachment for collaborative work on Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation; (d). several research visits of Yuthana Tirawanichakul of PSU, Thailand for his PhD sandwich programme (e). several attachment visits of Dusit, Chulalongkorn University for his M Sc sandwich programme.

44.   Transfer of UNU/ ICTP PFF to Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand from PSU, Songkla, Thailand and UM, Malaysia with research and training visits at UM (1999)

45.   Regional Meeting on Plasma Research in 21 Century, 7-12 May 2000, Bangkok held in conjunction with AAAPT Council Meetings and establishment of the AAAPT Research and Training Centre at Chulalongkorn University.

46.   Workshop on Plasma Focus Computation, June 2000 at NTU/NIE Singapore; participants from 10 countries working on numerical modelling of the plasma focus; Workshop was followed by 2-month attachment programme (July to August 2000) with scientists from Pakistan and Zimbabwe with specific interest on transfer of specific plasma technology. This workshop marks a point when the numerical code, originally developed for the UNU ICTP PFF, comes of age; the point when it is assembled together as a packaged powerful tool applicable universally to all Mather-type plasma focus; the point when its strength is fully realised-linkage with real experiments is forged through fitting computed current trace to a measured current trace.

47.   Scientific Exchange and attachments at NTU/NIE, Singapore: (a) AAAPT sponsored visit of Prof V A Gribkov in April 1995 started a major research collaboration between Prof Gribkov’s team and NTU/NIE leading to the development of the NX1 plasma focus high performance SXR source and the publication of several joint research papers. (b) Prof Tsai Shih Tung visited on AAAPT-initiated research collaboration for 3 months from Dec 1995 to March 1996 working on plasma focus radiation; a publication resulted (finalised by Y P Chen and published in memory of S T Tsai): S.T.Tsai, S.Lee, J.L.Hu and Y.P.Chen. Time averaged spontaneous Power Radiation in Plasma Focus. ACTA Physica Sinica (1997). China (Overseas Ed). 6:690-696. (c) Suriyakan Vongtrakul (Chiangmai University, Thailand) was attached for plasma training (April- June 1999)   (d) Dr Rajdeep Rawat was attached to NTU/NIE under AAAPT-initiated and partially sponsored research collaboration in two visits in 1999 and 2000. This visit led to the development of plasma focus materials deposition programme at the NTU/NIE Plasma Radiation Lab and the publications of many research papers (e) Prof Li Yin-an visited NTU/NIE for research collaboration for a total period of 2.5 years (1999-2001) resulting from AAAPT collaboration. This visit led to the development of several important projects icluding deposition of ‘harder than diamond’ materials and the publication of several research papers. (f) Vikas Aggarwal (IIT Bombay) carried out research on plasma focus material deposition (June-July 2003); (g) Other AAAPT visitors included: Delegations from universities including Chiangmai and Wailalak Universities, Prof M P Srivastava (Delhi), Prof Khalafawy (Cairo), Prof Gwal (India) and Prof S P Moo and Prof A C Chew (Malaysia)

48.   First Experimental Plasma International Collaboration Workgroup meeting 14-16 May   2001, Bangkok, Thailand with representation of AAAPT.

49.   Transfer of AAAPT Theta Pinch Plasma Source from AAAPT R & T Center, Beijing to AAAPT R & T Centre, Bangkok with expert scientists (from IP Beijing) attachment programme (2001-02). This facility was specially designed for transfer using a contribution of 8000 USD from AAAPT and resources provided by the R & T Center.

50.   Design of plasma focus powered by Romanian capacitors- This project was undertaken between AAAPT and V Zoita of Romania in order to provide plasma focus systems for Dr M Mathuthu (Zimbabwe) and Prof Sharif Al-Hawat (AEA Syria) 2001-2002. The design eventually resulted in plasma focus facilities in Syria and Zimbabwe.

51.   Cairo Conference on Plasma Physics and Applications, October 2003, Cairo, Egypt; with AAAPT Council meetings and the Third General Meeting. This 3rd AAAPT General Meeting failed to elect a new Council and the election was re-scheduled as a postal ballot to be conducted by Dr Brian Stewart from his office at the ICTP. - co-sponsored by AAAPT. This was duly completed in 2004 electing Prof C S Wong as New President of the Fifth Council of the AAAPT.